В свое время мне прекрасно запомнилось обсуждении подобной темы на истории. Наш преподаватель с жаром доказывал, что Марко Поло — врун и в России никогда не бывал. Позже я узнал, что мой учитель готовился выступать оппонентом на защите диссертации по аналогичному вопросу и поэтому «перелопатил» достаточно информации. Но одно из его доказательств я помню до сих пор, о чем поведаю ниже.
Марко Поло и Россия
Согласно совсем малюсенькой главе №118 в своей «Книге о разнообразии мира», итальянский купец выделяет следующие факты о стране русичей:
- Богатство серебром.
- Наличие пушного зверя.
- Окружение государства водами «моря-океана» (Северный ледовитый океан).
- Уплата дани только хану Тактактаю.
Если взять в расчет годы жизни путешественника (1254-1324 г.г.) и сопоставить с фактом уплаты дани хану Тактактаю (правильное имя Гийас ад-дин Токту, умер в 1312 году), то получается, что книга повествует о конце 13-го начале 14-го века. Также торговец говорит о сильно маленьком размере этого оброка, который составлял менее 10% от ежегодного дохода облагаемого данью населения. Такие размеры были установлены в 1299 году после переписи русского населения представителями ханства.
Из вышеизложенного следует, что рассказ Поло относится к самому началу становления Московского княжества, когда трон занимал младший сын Александра Невского Даниил Александрович (1261-1303 г.г.). Спутать с Киевской Русью Московское (русское) княжество он не мог, т.к. в книге они упоминаются отдельно.
Личное посещение России Марко Поло
А вот этот вопрос рождает глубокие сомнения. Марко Поло говорит о наличии огромных запасов серебра на земле русской. Скорее всего он имел ввиду хождение большого количества серебряных монет в наших землях. Но это не так. Такие монеты назывались иохимсталлеры и имели хождение в пограничных с Московским княжеством территориях.
И только много позже они появились на Руси и превратились в русском названии в «ефимки». Есть теория, что купец попросту не доехал до нашей территории, а рассказ свой написал со слов жителей приграничья.
- Окружающий мир
- Русский язык
- Немецкий язык
- Окружающий мир
- Английский язык
- Русский язык
- Немецкий язык
- Окружающий мир
- Английский язык
- Русский язык
- Немецкий язык
- Окружающий мир
- Английский язык
- Русский язык
- Немецкий язык
- Человек и мир
- Английский язык
- Русский язык
- Немецкий язык
- Английский язык
- Русский язык
Вопросы перед параграфом
1. Какие материки и части света вам известны?
Материки – Евразия, Африка, северная Америка, южная Америка, Австралия, Антарктида.
Части света — Европа, Азия, Австралия, Америка, Африка, Антарктида.
2. Правильно ли называть Америку материком, а Африку – частью света? Почему?
Часть света — это объекты суши, которые состоят из континентов либо их крупных элементов совместно с островами. Выделяют 6 таких частей: Европа, Америка, Антарктида, Азия, Австралия и Африка. Материки — это большие объекты суши, которые значительно превышают уровень океана, с подводной окраиной. Это четкая геологическая единица, а часть света, скорее, исторически принятая единица. Основные континенты: Антарктида, Африка, Южная Америка, Евразия, Северная Америка, Австралия. Поэтому ответ — нет, Америка состоит из 2-ух материков, а вот Африка является и тем, и другим.
3. Какие стороны горизонта вы знаете?
Основными сторонами горизонта являются: север, юг, запад и восток. Кроме того, между ними выделяю промежуточные: северо-восток, юго-восток, юго-запад и северо-запад. При этом стороны горизонта связаны с географическими направлениями: север и юг соответствуют полюсам Земли, а восток и запад связанны с вращением планеты — видимыми местами восхода и заката Солнца.
4. Кто из европейцев открыл Америку? Когда произошло это событие?
Это был Христофор Колумб (Итальянец) XV век, но он думал, что приехал в Индию. А доказал, что это Америка, Америго Веспучи.
1. К какому периоду истории России относится рассказ Марко Поло о нашей стране?
Это конец XIII век, в истории края ознаменовалось недавней смертью великого князя Александра Невского и распрей между его сыновьями — Дмитрием и Андреем. Впоследствии сражения между князьями за право главенствовать становятся привычными и постоянными. Междоусобные войны подтачивают мощь государства и приводят к разорению и бесконечным набегам со стороны внешних врагов. Именно в это время на большой части территории наших предков на много лет воцаряется татаро-монгольское иго…
2. На какие природные богатства России обращает внимание Марко Поло?
«Страна эта не торговая, но много мехов высокой ценности, есть и соболя, и горностаи, и белки, и множество лисиц. Много у них серебряных руд, добывают много серебра».
3. Какие черты внешности русских людей упоминает Марко Поло?
Народ простодушный и очень красивый; мужчины и женщины белы и белокуры.
4. Какую главную особенность климата России выделяет Марко Поло? Почему?
Самый сильный холод в свете в России: трудно от него укрыться. Страна большая, до самого моря-океана.
Вопросы и задания
1. Как изменился пространственный кругозор европейцев после V в.?
Им стало понятно, что земля не так мала, как им казалось раньше. Она больше не ограничивалась пределами Средиземного моря, или даже той долины, в которой жило некое племя или род. Европейцы открыли для себя Китай и Индию, а также другие территории и страны. Очень скоро скандинавы открыли для себя Северную Америку. Тогда как жители других территорий смогли найти пути, ведущие их с севера Европы к ее южным окончаниям.
2. Почему результаты морских походов викингов и открытия Гренландии и страны Винланд были долгое время неизвестны ученым Европы?
Результаты походов викингов и их открытия долгое время не были известны ученым Европы по причине того, что в то время не было связи между странами, обмен информацией не осуществлялся. Открытые скандинавскими мореплавателями земли не получили широкой известности и не послужили объектом для переселения и исследования.
3. Чем занимались викинги на берегах фьордов Скандинавского полуострова и на землях, открытых ими во время морских в Исландию?
Викинги были разбойниками, которые грабили и убивали. В прибрежных землях Европы о них ходила страшная молва. Но их дурная репутация не совсем справедлива. Они были не только жестокими воинами, но и умелыми торговцами и управленцами, а также мастерами по дереву и металлу. Некоторые изготовленные ими изделия и украшения сохранились и до наших дней.
Викинги были опытными мореплавателями, ведь их родная земля была «изрезана» фьордами. Их ладьи обладали превосходными мореходными качествами: скоростью, удобством и компактностью. При необходимости их можно было с легкостью переносить по суше. Такие суда великолепно подходили для мелких прибрежных вод и рек.
С таким арсеналом можно было смело отправляться завоевывать новые земли и развивать торговые связи. Экспедиции начались во второй половине VIII века и охватили территорию от Гренландии на западе до Каспийского моря на востоке. Вначале путешествия совершали лишь отдельные суда, но флот постепенно увеличивался, и вскоре уже сотни боевых кораблей двигались к берегам Англии, Шотландии, Франции и Ирландии.
За рубежом викинги не занимались ничем, кроме войны и грабежей. Викинги грабили многие страны. Тем не менее, грабеж был лишь одной из многих других целей их заморских экспедиций. Викинги мирно колонизировали Исландию, Гренландию и множество мелких островов. Исследуя, они пересекли Атлантический океан и достигли Америки за 500 лет до Колумба. Как международные купцы своего времени, они мирно торговали с почти каждой известной тогда страной.
Викинги основали большое количество городов и колоний, включая Дублин и Нормандию. Дублин имел первостепенное значение на протяжении более трех столетий. С 879 и по 920 года викинги колонизировали Исландию, ставшую в свою очередь исходным пунктом для колонизации Гренландии. Они добрались даже до Северной Америки.
4. Нанесите на контурную карту полушарий названия островов и полуостровов, которые были открыты викингами в IX–XI вв.
5. С какой целью жители Европы отправлялись в путешествия на Восток?
Население вырастало, а земель для проживания не хватало, требовались новые места. Была нужна торговля и прочные торговые связи с востоком, откуда в Европу везли предметы роскоши и пряности. Европа обнищала, был недостаток драг. металлов для чеканки монет. После захвата турками Константинополя были перекрыты проливы Босфор и Дарданеллы, а также Суэцкий канал. Все это вынудило искать пути обхода и подтолкнуло к новым географическим открытиям.
6. Какие страны посетил Марко Поло во время своих странствий по Азии?
Великое путешествие венецианского купца началось в 1271 году. На то время ему было всего 17 лет. Марко Поло отправился в плавание вместе со своим отцом и дядей.
Историки восстановили маршрут этого путешествия лишь гипотетически. Так, семейство Поло отправилось в сторону Китая через Месопотамию, Памир и Монголию. По пути они также посетили Иран, Цейлон, Индию и Суматру. Хотя в книге Марко упоминаются и совсем невероятные топонимы: например, Япония, остров Мадагаскар и даже Бразилия! В 1275 семейство Поло достигло территории Китая. В Китае Марко Поло пробыл почти 17 лет. Семейство покинуло Китай лишь в 1291 году. В Венецию они вернулись с большим количеством подарков и сокровищ. Таким образом, странствие Марко Поло в Азию длилось более 20 лет. За это время он преодолел около 24 000 километров.
7. Нанесите на свою контурную карту полушарий названия заливов и морей, по которым проходил маршрут путешествия Марко Поло.
Впечатления Марко Поло о России.
Глава CCXVIIIЗдесь описывается Росия и ее жители
Росия – большая страна на севере. Живут тут христиане греческого исповедания. Тут много царей и свой собственный язык; народ простодушный и очень красивый; мужчины и женщины белы и белокуры. На границе тут много трудных проходов и крепостей. Дани они никому не платят, только немного царю Запада[«Царь Запада» – хан Золотой Орды.]; а он татарин и называется Тактактай[Тактактай, ниже Токтай – золотоордынский хан Тохта (Токта), или Тохтогу (1290—1312)], ему они платят дань, и никому больше. Страна эта не торговая, но много у них дорогих мехов высокой ценности; у них есть и соболя, и горностаи, и белки, и эрколины,  и множество славных лисиц, лучших в свете. Много у них серебряных руд; добывают они много серебра.
О другом чем нечего тут говорить, а потому пойдем из Росии и расскажем вам о Великом море, что кругом этих областей, и о тамошних жителях, начнем прежде всего с Константинополя.
Но расскажу вам прежде всего об области, что к северу и северо-западу. В этой стране, скажу вам, есть область Лак[Возможно, речь идет о Валахии.] ; граничит она с Росией; тут есть царь, а жители – христиане и сарацины. Много тут хороших мехов; купцы вывозят их в разные стороны. Жители занимаются торговлею и ремеслами. О другом чем тут нечего говорить, а потому пойдем отсюда и расскажем о другом.
Хочу сказать о Росии кое-что, что я забыл. Знайте, по истинной правде, самый сильный холод в свете в Росии; трудно от него укрыться. Страна большая, до самого моря-океана; и на этом море у них несколько островов, где водятся кречеты и соколы-пилигримы, все это вывозится по разным странам света. От Росии, скажу вам, до Норвегии [Oroech; на полях рукописи: Norvege] путь недолог, и если бы не холод, так можно было бы туда скоро дойти, а от великого холода нелегко туда ходить.
Оставим это и расскажем о большом море. Много тут было, по правде, купцов и других людей, а еще больше людей не знают этой страны; для них и следует ее описать, что мы и сделаем; сперва начнем сначала, с константинопольских проливов.
Что можно сказать? Все как и всегда: русская зима и природные ресурсы. И ещё мы простодушны)
90000 BBC - History - Historic Figures: Marco Polo (c.1254 90001 90002 90003 Marco Polo © 90004 Polo was a Venetian traveller and writer who was one of the first westerners to visit China. 90005 90006 90002 Marco Polo was born in around 1254 into a wealthy and cosmopolitan Venetian merchant family. Polo's father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, were jewel merchants. In 1260, they left Venice to travel to the Black Sea, moving onwards to central Asia and joining a diplomatic mission to the court of Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler of China.Khan asked the Polo brothers to return to Europe and persuade the pope to send scholars to explain Christianity to him. They arrived back in Venice in 1269. 90006 90002 In 1271, they set off again, accompanied by two missionaries and Marco, and in 1 275 reached Khan's summer court. For the next 17 years the Polos lived in the emperor's lands. Little is known of these years, but Marco Polo was obviously popular with the Mongol ruler and was sent on various diplomatic missions which gave him the opportunity to see many parts of China.90006 90002 Around 1292, the Polos offered to accompany a Mongol princess who was to become the consort of Arghun Khan in Persia. The party sailed from a southern Chinese port via Sumatra, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), southern India, and the Persian Gulf. After leaving the princess in Iran, the Polos travelled overland to Constantinople and then to Venice, arriving home in 1295. 90006 90002 The Polos eventually departed for Europe and reached Venice in 1295. Marco became involved in a naval conflict between Venice and Genoa and in тисячі двісті дев'яносто-вісім was captured by the Genoese.In prison, his stories attracted the attention of a writer from Pisa, Rustichello, who began to write them down, frequently embellishing them as he went. The resulting book was extremely popular and was translated into many languages under a number of titles, including 'The Million' and the 'Travels of Marco Polo'. 90006 90002 After Polo was released he returned to Venice, where he remained for the rest of his life. He died on 8 January 1324. 90006 .90000 fiction or science? Volume 5 90001 90002 Slavonic conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia as medieval mother country of the Great Empire. 90003 Where in reality travelled Marco Polo. Who were Italian Etrurians. Ancient Egypt. Scandinavia. Russia-Horde on the ancient maps. 90004 90005 Part 4. 90003 Western European archaeology confirms our reconstruction, likewise mediaeval cartography and geography. 90007 90002 Chapter 14. 90003 The real contents of Marco Polo's famous book.90004 90002 90012 90013 90004 90002 90012 1. Introduction. The identity of Marco Polo. 90013 90004 90002 What does Marco Polo's famous book describe in reality? The readers might already wearily reply: "ancient Russia once again". Let us correct - not merely Russia as actually described by Marco Polo under the names of Tartary, India and China, but also several other European and Asian countries. The ones that were not described are the modern India and China, which Marco Polo is believed to have visited today.90004 90002 As we shall demonstrate, the initial text of Marco Polo, really created in the XIV-XVI century, was describing the Great = "Mongolian" Empire, or the mediaeval Russia. 90004 90002 However, when the Portuguese and the Western Europeans of the XVII-XVIII century in general finally circumnavigated the coast of Africa and ended up in the South-East Asia - independently from the fleet of the Horde and the Atamans, the country they discovered, or the modern India, was mistaken for the India of Marco Polo that they were searching.The seafarers had already forgotten the authentic history of the XIV-XVI century, and were accustomed to the Scaligerian geography of the XVII-XVIII century, where the old name "India" as used by the Horde already referred to the territory of the modern India , and not the rest of the Horde. 90004 90002 When the travellers returned to Western Europe, they included all the exotic things that fascinated them (the elephants, the apes, the cannibals etc) into all of the later editions of Marco Polo's book, so as not to conceal new and intriguing data about "the famed distant India" from the reader.Apparently, the inclusion of new information into an old book, with the name of the author remaining intact, was typical for that epoch. 90004 90002 As a result, the contents of Marco Polo's book as we know it today are a mixture of his own description of "Mongolia", or Russia in the XIV-XVI century and newer Western European data pertaining to the "authentic" modern India, brought to Europe by European seafarers in the XVII-XVIII century. 90004 90002 This is how the Muscovite Russians, or "Tartars and Mongols" wearing the kaftans of marksmen ended up side by side with the naked tropical cannibals.Editors of the XVII-XVIII century simply failed to see a contradiction here. Nowadays commentators writing in good faith are greatly confused since they do not understand how a single page of Marco Polo's book can contain obvious references to the Russian marksmen and descriptions of horrifying crocodiles and herds of elephants. 90004 90002 We shall be using the fundamental academic edition of Marco Polo's book (), complemented with detailed comments. 90004 90002 Marco Polo (allegedly of 1254-1324 A.D.) is considered the greatest traveller of the XIII century, hailing from Venice in Italy. He undertook a long journey and travelled for several years, allegedly in 1271-1295, visiting a number of distant lands; among them - Tartary, the kingdom of the Great Khan, and then presumably India, China, Madagascar, Ceylon and Africa. Moreover, it is presumed that he was the one to introduce the very word "India" into the vocabulary of the West Europeans (, page 488). It stands for "a distant land", as we already know.90004 90002 His standard biography is as follows: "Polo, Marco, ca. 1254-1324, Italian traveller. In 1271-1275 he travelled to China and stayed there for some 17 years. In 1292-1295 he made his way back to Italy by sea. His 'Travels' (одна тисяча двісті дев'яносто вісім) rank among the earliest sources of knowledge about the lands of the Central, Eastern and Southern Asia that the Europeans had "(, page 1029). 90004 90002 However, despite his fame that is said to have thundered all across Europe ever since the XIII, the first interest in the biography of Marco Polo was expressed as late as in the XVI century - three hundred years later, that is ( , Volume 1, page 2)."The first one to try and systematise the knowledge of Marco Polo's life was his fellow countryman John Baptist Ramusio" (, Volume 1, page 2). Actually, the name of this "biographer" translates as "John the Baptist of Rome". Therefore, the biography of Marco Polo was covered in obscurity for three hundred years at least, presumably to regain its splendour only in the middle of the XVI century. 90004 90002 Marco Polo is said to have been buried in the Church of St. Lorenzo in Venice.However, there is no such grave in St. Lorenzo, and no such grave has ever existed there ever since the end of the XVI century at least ([тисячу сімдесят вісім], Volume 1, page 74). Even if there was such a grave here at some point, the data that we learn from  imply that it was destroyed in 1592 during the reconstruction of the church. Why would the Venetians treat their famous compatriot so unjustly? Apparently, no such grave has ever existed here. 90004 90002 Further on, [одна тисяча двісті шістьдесят чотири] reports that no authentic portraits of Marco Polo exist anywhere (, Volume 1, page 75).Marco Polo is believed to have hailed from a highly distinguished family that vanished completely in the early XV century (, Volume 1, page 8). 90004 90002 And so, in the XVI century, which is when the biographers first expressed an interested in the life of Marco Polo, they could find no traces of him anywhere in Venice. 90004 90002 On the other hand, the following oddity is to be considered: the first printed edition of Marco Polo's book appeared in the alleged year 1447 - in Germany, and written in German (, Volume 2, page 554).Why did not it come out in Italy and in Italian? 90004 90002 In the first page of the German edition we see a portrait of Marco Polo accompanied by the following legend: "90048 Das ist der edel Ritter. Marcho polo von Venedig. . . 90049 "(see fig. 14.1). The literal translation is as follows: "This is the noble knight Marco, the Venetian Pole". Why do we translate the word "90048 polo 90049" as "Pole"? But how are we supposed to translate it? It begins with a lowercase "p", whereas all the actual names begin with a capital ( "Marco", "Venice" and so on).Hence the obvious consideration that the word "90048 polo 90049" stands for "Pole". 90004 90002 Our opponents might counter saying that the Italian city of Venice is mentioned here as well. As a matter of fact, the exact translation of "90048 Venedig 90049" might be different - apart from Venice in Italy, it may have stood for the famous Venedia, or Wendia - the famed Western European Slavic region (, page 207 ). In our age the Western Slavs are known as Poles in particular. Therefore, the first German edition of Marco Polo's biography appears to consider him a Pole from Venedia - hence "Marco the Pole".90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 2. Who was the real author of Marco Polo's book? 90013 90004 90002 90012 90013 It is commonly known that the book of Marco Polo was not written by himself - he is believed to have dictated it to someone (see above and in , page тисячі двадцять дев'ять). Marco Polo is referred to in the third person throughout the book. For example, Chapter 35 of Book 2 begins as follows: "It must be known that the Emperor had sent the abovementioned noble Marco Polo, the author of this whole story, on a journey.. . And now I shall tell you what he [Marco Polo - Auth.] Saw in his travels "(, Volume 2, page 3). 90004 90002 This fact was obviously pointed out by the commentators of [тисяча двісті шістьдесят чотири] - we are not revealing anything new here. 90004 90002 Furthermore, it turns out that the book of Marco Polo has reached us processed by a professional novelist known as Rusticiano. According to the commentator Henry Cordier, "one can not help wondering about the extent. . . to which Polo's text was transformed by Rusticiano, a professional writer "(, page 112).The intrusions of Rusticiano into the original text, if it had at all existed, can be traced throughout the entire book (, page 113). 90004 90002 We have therefore got every reason to suspect that the text of Marco Polo as known to us today is a novel of the XVII-XVIII century and not a collection of travel notes. 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 3. In what language did Marco Polo read or dictate his book? 90013 90004 90002 The question is not ours, and we do hope the readers appreciate the formulation.It turns out that we do not even know what language Marco Polo's book was written in. 90004 90002 The following is reported: "As for the language that Marco Polo's book was written in originally, there are different opinions. Ramusio thought it was Latin, without any particular reason; Marsden suggested it was the Venetian dialect, and Baldelli Boni was the first to demonstrate. . . that it had been French "(, page 81). However, the dispute continues to date. 90004 90002 This clearly implies that the original of Marko Polo's book is not merely nonexistent - we do not even know what language it was in; we have nothing at our disposal but later manuscripts and publications in a variety of languages.90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 4. Did Marco Polo visit the territory of modern China at all? 90013 90004 90002 90012 4.1. The location of the Great Wall of China. 90013 90004 90002 Serious doubts about whether Marco Polo actually visited the territory of modern China accompany a critically minded reader throughout the entire book. Even the traditionalist commentators express their doubts. The cup of their otherwise endless patience ran over due to the circumstance that Marco Polo never got to sample Chinese tea, and, on top of everything, did not notice the Great Wall, which is extremely odd, since he's believed to have lived in China for seventeen years, qv in , page тисяча двадцять дев'ять.How could it be? Did no one ever mention it to him? Did not it ever surface in conversation as a local "wonder"? 90004 90002 The puzzled commentator tells us simply: "He does not utter a single word about the Great Wall of China" ([тисячу двісті шістьдесят чотири], Volume 1, page 292). Certain puzzled scientists have even tried to discover "implicit references" to the Great Wall in Marco Polo's text, the assumption being that he was aware of the Wall's existence, but had certain ulterior motives for writing nothing about it.Modern scientists are trying to fathom the nature of these motives. Yet Marco Polo's awareness of the wall's existence is never questioned (, page 110). 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 4.2. How about the tea? 90013 90004 90002 Let us consider tea. The evasive modern commentary is as follows: "It is strange that Polo never mentions the use of tea in China, despite the fact that he travelled through the tea region of Fu Kien; after all, during that epoch the Chinese drank tea just as frequently as they do today "([тисяча сімдесят вісім], page 111).90004 90002 Such pity about the tea. Seventeen years spent in China, and not a single cup of the famous Chinese tea. What did he drink in the mornings, after all? 90004 90002 The notion that Marco Polo "never travelled anywhere and invented everything" is very common, and has proponents in the ranks of the academia to this very day. This is, for instance, what the "Kommersant Daily" newspaper wrote on 28 October 1995: Додати 90004 90002 "Marco Polo did not like tea. 90004 90002 Frances Wood, Director of the British Library's Chinese Department defends the opinion that she arrived at as a result of her research concerning the hypothetical visit of Marco Polo to China on the pages of the Times, expressing her doubts about whether the famous Venetian had really visited the Chinese Empire.The researcher is of the opinion that he did not get any further than Constantinople, subsequently going into hiding somewhere in the environs of Genoa to write down the story of his fictitious travels: 'Polo's book does not say a word about either the Great Wall, tea, china or the deformed feet of the women - he could not possibly have failed to notice all of it '. Her opponents assume that such indifference to tea can be explained by the fact that travellers prefer stronger drinks ". 90004 90002 Opponents appear to have no other answer, and therefore try to render the problem to a joke.We feel obliged to repeat our question: what if Marco Polo did not deceive anyone, but simply visited a different country? 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 4.3. Has Marco Polo seen Chinese women? 90013 90004 90002 There is a famous and unique custom that concerns Chinese women, which has been noticed by every European to visit the territory of the modern China. This custom had existed until very recently. Ever since their childhood, Chinese women wore special shoes that did not let their feet grow in the natural manner.This is how their feet were made unnaturally small, which was considered seemly, but intervened with freedom of motion - for instance, Chinese women could not run. At any rate, this trait is very characteristic, and could not have been let unnoticed by any traveller. How about Marco Polo? Not a word, although he is said to have spent seventeen years in China. The astonished commentator of  obviously points out this fact, and remains confused (, page 111). 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 4.4. Where are the hieroglyphs? 90013 90004 90002 Marco Polo does not say a word about the famous Chinese hieroglyphic writing (, page 111). No commentary is needed here. 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 4.5. What else did Marco Polo "ignore" about China? 90013 90004 90002 According to the clueless remarks of the commentator of , Marco Polo has also "ignored" the following: 90004 90002 a) book-printing in China, 90004 90002 b) the famous Chinese hatching units for artificial poultry raising.90004 90002 c) the "big cormorant" fishing technique, 90004 90002 d) "as well as a variety of other remarkable arts and customs that it would be natural to remember" for a traveller in China ([тисяча сімдесят вісім], page 111). 90004 90002 The commentator summarises: "It is hard to explain all these omissions of Marco Polo [in reference to China - Auth.], Especially if we're to compare them to his more or less detailed descriptions of Tartar and South Indian customs. One gets the impression that he had communicated with foreigners for the most part while in China [sic! - Auth.] "(, page 111). 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 4.6. What "indubitably Chinese phenomena" did Marco Polo notice during his visit to "China"? 90013 90004 90002 Our answer shall be very brief: nothing at all! It is easy enough to notice by his book (). 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 5. Geographical names used by Marco Polo were considered his own inventions in Europe for two hundred years. 90013 90004 90002 The first biographer of Marco Polo, modestly named John the Baptist of Rome (John Baptist Ramusio), who lived in Venice in the middle of the alleged XVI century writes the following in his preface to Marco Polo's book: 90004 90002 "His book, which contains numerous errors and inaccuracies, was considered fantasy for many years; the dominant opinion was that the names of towns and cities contained therein [all names! - Auth.] Had been invented by the author, with no real basis underneath - pure fiction, in other words "(, Volume 2, page 2). 90004 90002 The publisher has repeated it four times here that the geography of Marco Polo was fiction through and through. But how close is that to the truth? Could Marco Polo have visited other places? 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 6. What are the "islands" mentioned by Marco Polo? 90013 90004 90002 Mediaeval travellers, including Marco Polo, often refer to countries as to islands.We have cited many such examples in CHRON4 - for instance, even Russia was occasionally called "island". In CHRON4, Chapter 18: 5 we have already explained that the world "island" was formerly used for referring to a land or a country in Asia, or in the Orient. The English word "island" was derived from "Asian land". 90004 90002 In the Middle Ages, "all the faraway lands that needed to be reached by sea were called islands" (, page 245). 90004 90002 Sometimes such "explanations" are so dubious that the modern commentators are forced to write such things as "Polo describes Ormus as though it were located on an island, which contradicts.. . reality "(, pages 97-98). 90004 90002 Therefore, when we discover references to islands in Marco Polo's book, we should not think that he really refers to islands in the modern meaning of the word - most likely, countries. 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 7. Why modern commentators have to "correct" certain names used by Marco Polo, allegedly in error. 90013 90004 90002 Having fallaciously "superimposed" the book of Marco Polo over the territory of the modern China, historians were amazed to discover that the names used by Marco Polo did not look Chinese at all, for some odd reason.Then they started to correct Marco Polo in the following manner. 90004 90002 Polo often uses several spellings of a single name, often at close distance from one another ([тисяча сімдесят вісім], page 84). Commentators try to choose the ones that sound "the most Chinese", writing such things as "in two or three cases I suggested a spelling that is not present in any of the sources" (, page 143). 90004 90002 Here are a few examples. "Correct Oriental forms of the names Bulughan and Kukachin have transformed in a number of manuscripts.. . into Bolgara [or Volgara! - Auth.] And Cogatra. . . Kaikhatu Kaan figures as. . . Chiato and. . . Acatu "(, pages 85-86). 90004 90002 The names do not really sound Chinese. One might suggest a variety of hypotheses in order to reconstruct their real meaning, such as: 90004 90002 The name Bolgara refers to the region of River Volga. 90004 90002 The name Acatu is the well-known Russian name Asaf (or Iosaf), considering the frequent flexion of F and T. 90004 90002 The name Chiato (Chet) is familiar to us from Russian history, and was borne by the founder of the famous Godunov family, an ancestor of Czar Boris "Godunov", qv in CHRON4.And so on, and so forth. 90004 90002 Let us cite another example. In Chapter 10 of Book 3 Marco Polo tells us about the lands of Samara and Dagroian, or the Kingdom of the Dagi (, Volume 2, page 292). 90004 90002 However, the table that we have compiled from the materials of VI Matouzova (, pages 261 and 264) makes it clear that the Dagi was the name of the Russians (as used in mediaeval England, for instance, qv in CHRON4 , Chapter 15: 1.5). Therefore, the Kingdom of the Dagi identifies as the Russian Kingdom.Below we shall give an explanation of what Russian customs could have given birth to the moniker "Dagi". 90004 90002 Let us carry on. We hardly need to remind the reader that Samara is a famous Russian city on the Volga, or, alternatively, Sarmatia - Russia, or Scythia, in other words. In CHRON4 we already mentioned that Samara must have been one of the old capitals of the Golden Horde, possibly also the Samarqand of Timur. Indeed, some manuscripts of Marco Polo's book use the name "Samarcha" for referring to Samara (, Volume 2, page 294).Could that be "Samarqand"? The actual name "Samarqand" must have stood for "Sarmatian Khandom" - Sarma-Kand or Sarma-Khan. 90004 90002 Incidentally, when Marco Polo describes Samara he makes a reference to the "abundance of fish in these parts, which is the best in the world" (, Volume 2, page 292). This is coming from a Venetian who should know something about fish. Could it be the Volga sturgeon that Marco Polo enjoyed so much? 90004 90002 Needless to say, historians have neither found Samara, nor Dagroian in the South-Eastern Asia.What did they suggest as a replacement? Sumatra instead of Samara, and the formidable name Ting-Ho-Rh instead of Dagroian (, Volume 2, pages 296-297). 90004 90002 Therefore, the word "Samara" must have stood for "Sarmatia" in Marco Polo's book - Scythia, or Russia, that is. 90004 90002 Where did Marco Polo travel, after all? For instance, we know that Polo the Elder voyaged along Tigris, which is localised in Mesopotamia today - apparently, erroneously so, since modern commentators report that some of the mediaeval travellers believed Tigris to identify as River Volga.Polo the Elder, for instant, used the name "Tigris" for referring to Volga - see the map entitled "Marco Polo's Itineraries. No. 1 "in , Volume 1. The map tells us explicitly:" R. TIGRIS (VOLGA) ". See figs. 14.2 and 14.3. 90004 90002 And so, where did the mediaeval West Europeans localise the famous Mesopotamian River? Apparently, in mediaeval Russia (or India), a land that lays at a considerable distance from the Western Europe (India - from the Russian word "90048 inde 90049", "far away").There are many large rivers in Russia - the areas between them could be called "Mesopotamia", or "interfluve". 90004 90002 We believe the explanation to be simple. Up until the moment when the Scaligerite editors of the XVII century rearranged the maps, ascribing the names "India" and "China" exclusively to the territories known as such today, West Europeans must have used the words "India", "China" and "Mesopotamia" for referring to a single country - Slavic and Turkic Russia, or the Horde = Scythia of the XIV-XVI century.90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 8. What direction should one take in order to reach India and China from Italy? 90013 90004 90002 90012 90013 The question will instantly be answered: Southeast, or East at the very least - not Northeast, and certainly not North. It suffices to take a look at the map. 90004 90002 However, the first biographer of Marco Polo cherished the naïve conviction (allegedly in the middle of the XVI century) that Polo's route lay to the North and Northeast from Italy ([тисяча сімдесят вісім], page 2).Moreover, he was of the opinion that Marco Polo travelled some lands to the North of the Caspian Sea - Russia, in other words. 90004 90002 His text is as follows: "Ptolemy, as the last of the [ancient] geographers, was the most knowledgeable [of them all]. His knowledge of the North comprised all the lands until the Caspian Sea. . . His knowledge of the South ended beyond the equator. These unknown regions in the South were first discovered by the Portuguese captains of our time [the XVI century the earliest - Auth.]. As for the North and the Northeast, these lands were discovered by the brilliant nobleman Marco Polo "(, page 2). 90004 90002 90003 Let us consider this text, which is presumed to date from the XVI century, once again and more attentively. It clearly indicates that Marco Polo travelled to the North or the Northeast of the Caspian Sea - along the Volga, or between the Volga and the Ural, in other words. The lands found to the North of the Caspian have always belonged to Russia.90004 90002 Therefore, Marco Polo travelled through Russia 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 9. Why Marco Polo mentions spices, silks and oriental wares in general when he tells us about India, or Russia. 90013 90004 90002 Our opponents might want to enquire about the following matter. If Marco Polo's India was really Russia, whence the references to spices, silks, apes and so on. There are no wild apes in Russia, and no spices grow there. 90004 90002 This is correct. However, one could encounter all of the above sold for a profit - for instance, at the famous Yaroslavl (or Novgorod) marketplace in the Mologa estuary.Spices and other exotic wares were brought here from the Orient - India in the modern meaning of the word, Persia and so on. No Western European merchants ventured further than the Yaroslavl Market. 90004 90002 Indeed, they could not have travelled any further. We have already explained how the trade between the East and the West must have been organised in the XIV-XVI century - with Russia acting as an intermediary. Being in control of vast territories, the Great = "Mongolian" Empire chose a very clever tactic indeed.The flow of wares from the West and the East converged in a single point - the Yaroslavl Market, or the Azov region of the Don. Customs offices were located here, and they collected tax. Therefore, Western traders were not allowed any further than the market, likewise the Eastern traders - in order to make all of them pay the Russian tax. 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 10. The toponymy of the name "India". 90013 90004 90002 And so, the Westerners would find Oriental wares in Russia.Deeply impressed by the cute little monkeys and the abundance of ginger, they enquired about their land of origin. Russian traders replied "from 90048 indea 90049", which translates as "from a distant land", weighing the cinnamon and charging their clients hefty sums in full knowledge that they could not buy exotic goods at any other market. 90004 90002 This is how the trade was done in the epoch of the Great = "Mongolian" Empire, which covers some three hundred years. The Westerners were obviously doing their utmost in order to find a diversion so as to pay less for their purchases.90004 90002 The original meaning of the Russian word "India" (formerly "Indea", cf. "90048 inde 90049" - "elsewhere", "somewhere", "on the other side", qv in , Issue 6, page 235) may not be understood by everyone - it had simply stood for "a distant land", "a foreign country" etc. 90004 90002 The adverb "90048 inde 90049" is no longer used in Russian. However, it was adopted by the Latin language, which was created in the XV-XVI century, without even changing its form. Nowadays it can be found in any Latin dictionary, meaning "thence, from that place.. . " (, page 523). The traders, who were beginning to speak Latin, brought this word back from the Yaroslavl (Novgorod) market, as well as the name "India" (faraway land), which is derived from it. 90004 90002 Incidentally, the Russian "Voyage" of Afanasiy Nikitin uses the word "India" in this very meaning, in general reference to distant lands. 90004 90002 90004 90002 90012 11. When and how were certain geographical names used by Marco Polo "localised". 90013 90004 90002 Polo's first biographer wrote the following in the middle of the alleged XVI century: "However, over the last few centuries the people familiar with Persia started to think about the existence of China [?! - Auth.] "(, page 3). 90004 90002 Let us remind the readers that at some point in the past, the Westerners were "aware of China's existence" - as Scythia, or the ancient Russia; see Part 6 of the present book, which uses materials taken from Scandinavian chronicles in order to prove that in the XIV-XVI century "China" was the name of Scythia. Then, in the XVII century, it was "lost", together with the knowledge that the name China referred to Russia, or "Mongolia", in the days of yore. For some period of time, the West Europeans were convinced that there was no China at all, and that all of Marco Polo's accounts of his voyage to China were pure figments of imagination (, page 2).90004 90002 In the XVII-XVIII century, when the Westerners finally reached the Orient independently by sea and discovered the new lands that they had not been familiar with previously, they recollected the "lost China" and decided to look for it, eventually locating the country in the Far East. However, they were not aware of the fact that they only managed to discover the easternmost and relatively small part of the former China, or Scythia, or the Great = "Mongolian" Empire. 90004 90002 It must have happened as follows.Upon arriving to South-East Asia with Marco Polo's book in their hands, Europeans of the XVII-XVIII century started to search for names familiar from Marco Polo's book. Why would they need to do it? The answer is quite simple. Let us step in the shoes of the Portuguese captain of the XVII-XVIII century, whose journey was driven by practical considerations, not abstract scientific interest, and sponsored by the king. This captain had a clear objective of finding a trade route to India and also China, which was somewhere near India, according to Polo.90004 90002 The captain in question could not have returned without "finding" China and other countries from Polo's book. In order to prove it to the king that the correct route to India and China was indeed discovered, the captain was simply obliged to find some names familiar from Polo's book on the terrain at least, seeing as how it was the only source of knowledge about India and China (, page 488). Obviously enough, the captain could not report that his mission was a failure for fear of losing his job.90004 90002 And so, when the Europeans finally reached the South-East Asia, they started their search for the names from Polo's book. However, everyone they met spoke a foreign language, completely beyond their comprehension and based on altogether different phonetic principles. The names were also local, and therefore incomprehensible. 90004 90002 It is very hard for any European to make head or tail of the local names due to the complexity of the local phonetics. Therefore, European travellers wrote the well familiar names from Polo's book on the maps of the South-East Asia that they compiled - earnestly and in good faith, without any intentions of deceit, under the erroneous assumption that they were reconstructing the old names of these places from Polo's book.They must have looked for phonetic matches and rejoiced if they could find any; however, most often this was not the case and they simply used the names they found in the book of Marco Polo. 90004 90002 Europeans "found" Samara, Java, Ceylon, Madagascar etc in South-East Asia, following the indications of Marco Polo and using his names for the newly discovered (in the post-Imperial epoch) islands and countries in the remote Southeast. However, the actual descriptions of these "islands" as given by Marco Polo give no reason for such unambiguous identifications.90004 90002 Let us just cite a single edifying example out of a great many similar ones. Let us open the Encyclopaedic Dictionary () and read what is said about the Indo-Chinese Isle of Java. We quote: 90004 90002 "An island in the Malayan archipelago, Indonesian territory. Length: over тисячі km, area: 126.5 square kilometres. Population: circa 83 million (1975). Over 100 volcanoes (about 30 of them active; the tallest is 3676 metres), situated alongside the axis of the island, there are hills and valleys in the north.Frequent earthquakes. Deciduous and evergreen tropical forests, savannahs in the east. The plains are cultivated (rice, manioc, maize and yam). Main cities: Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya "(, 1564). This is all that we learn about Java. 90004 90002 Here's the description of "Isle Java" given by Marco Polo: "There are eight kingdoms there, and eight kings wearing crowns. The whole populace is pagan; each kingdom speaks a language of its own. There is an abundance of valuables on the island, expensive spices and aromatic oils.. . " ([Тисяча двісті шістьдесят чотири], Volume 2, page 284). And so on, and so forth. Polo does not report any typical geographical characteristics of the area - not a single word about volcanoes, tall mountains or names of cities. 90004 90002 One wonders why we are supposed to assume that Marco Polo's Java is the very same Java that was baptised thus by the Western European captains of the XVII-XVIII century, with Marco Polo's books in their hands? Such arbitrariness allows identifying any given place in any which way provided the locals do not mind too much.Let us also point out a peculiar detail. Where did the Europeans manage to find Marco Polo's names? On remote and wild islands inhabited by savage tribes in that epoch. The tribesmen were illiterate and did not oppose the "white gods from ships", armed with cannons and making decisive statements in an unfamiliar language. 90004 90002 More civilised regions were more problematic - Manchurian China, for instance. In the XVII-XVIII century, the Chinese treated foreigners with great suspicion; in тисяча сімсот п'ятьдесят сім the Manchurians altogether forbade foreign trade in every harbour except for Canton (, Volume 5, page 314).The results are visible perfectly well. Apart from the city of Canton, and, possibly, two or three more cases, we can not find any of Marco Polo's names on the territory of the modern China. 90004 90002 Actually, the Chinese name of Canton is Guangzhou (, page 538). Do the two names have much in common? It would be expedient to remind the reader that "canton" is a French word that simply translates as "district". Why drag the French word to the East of China and inscribe it on a map? 90004 90002 The matter is that Marco Polo knew French.Had it been English, we would have a city called Town in China - also very similar to Guangzhou, is not it? 90004 90002 Since the Europeans had failed to "discover" any of Marco Polo's names in China, they invented the theory that Polo particularly detested the Chinese language. Modern commentators write the following in this respect: "One gets the impression that he [Polo - Auth.] Was communicating with foreigners predominantly while in China. If any place that he describes had a Tartar of a Persian name, he would invariably use it in lieu of the Chinese version.Cathay, Cambaluc, Pulisanghin, Tangut, Chagannor, Saianfu, Kenjanfu, Tenduc etc - all of the above are Mongolian, Turkish or Persian versions, although they all possess Chinese equivalents "(, page 111). 90004 90002 There is nothing odd about it. Marco Polo really did not know any Chinese due to the simple fact that he had never visited the territory of modern China. When the West Europeans came to China in the XVII-XVIII century, not really allowed deep into the country, they had to use second-hand data - Turkish, Persian etc (written down by travellers of those nations who visited inner parts of China) .This is how the Turkish and Persian names used for referring to Chinese towns and cities may have appeared in later editions of Marco Polo's book. 90004 .90000 fiction or science? Volume 5 90001 90002 Paperback >> 90003 90004 CONTENTS 90005 90002 FOREWORD. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Part 1. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Russia as the centre of the "Mongolian" Empire and its role in mediaeval civilization. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter 1. 90012 90003 90002 90011 "Peculiar" geographical names on the maps of the XVIII century. 90012 90003 90002 1. Introduction. 90003 90002 2.The meaning of the word "Mongolia" as used by the authors. 90003 90002 3. The Kuban Tartars as the Kuban Cossacks on the maps of Russia dating from the epoch of Peter the Great. 90003 90002 4. The identity of Persia. 90003 90002 5. Czar-Grad and the multiple Saray cities on the maps dating from the epoch of Peter the Great. 90003 90002 6. The dating of 750 as inscribed upon a Russian naval chart, proves that Empress Yelizaveta Petrovna reigned in the eighth century as counted from the Nativity of Christ, and not the XVIII.90003 90002 7. On some maps of the XVIII century Russia and Moscovia are written as names that refer to different region. 90003 90002 8. The name of the Russian Empire in the maps of the XVIII century. 90003 90002 9. The former identity of Lithuania. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter2. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Russian history as reflected in coins. 90012 90003 90002 1. A general characteristic of Russian coinage. 90003 90002 2. The mysterious period of "coinage absence" in Russian history.90003 90002 3. Strange absence of golden coinage from the Western European currency of the VIII-XIII century. 90003 90002 4. The origins of the bicephalous eagle as seen on Russian coins. 90003 90002 5. The Tartar and Russian names of the coins circulating among the Russians and the Tartars. 90003 90002 6. Russian and Tartar lettering and the presumably "meaningless inscriptions" on the ancient coins of the Muscovite principality. 90003 90002 7. Bilingual lettering on the Russian coins of the XIV century (Russian and Tartar).90003 90002 8. The locations of the Tartar mints. 90003 90002 9. Why Great Prince Ivan III put the Hungarian coat of arms on some of his coins. 90003 90002 10. Some general considerations in re numismatic history. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter3. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Vestiges of the Great = "Mongolian" Empire in documents and on the artefacts found in Europe and Asia. 90012 90003 90002 1. The allegedly illegible inscriptions on mediaeval swords.90003 90002 2. Italian and German swords with Arabic lettering. 90003 90002 3. The reason why the coronation mantle of the Holy Roman Empire is covered in Arabic lettering exclusively. 90003 90002 4. Church Slavonic inscription in the 90093 glagolitsa 90094 script in the Catholic Cathedral of St. Vitus in Prague. 90003 90002 5. The peculiar title of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, a Russian Czar of the XVII century, as inscribed on his seal. 90003 90002 6. Stone effigies on ancient Russian grave-mounds.The "stone maids of the Polovtsy". 90003 90002 7. N. A. Morozov's input into historical science is great; however, his pro-Western theory is erroneous. 90003 90002 8. The Western European countries and their fear of the "Mongols and Tartars". 90003 90002 9. The Great = "Mongolian" conquest resulted in a westward migration of geographical names. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Part 2. 90012 90003 90002 90011 China. 90012 90011 The new chronology and conception of Chinese history.Our hypothesis. 90012 90011 Introduction. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Introduction. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter4. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Astronomical events in the "ancient" Chinese chronicles. 90012 90003 90002 1. The actual astronomical events described in Chinese chronicles. 90003 90002 2. Chinese eclipses. 90003 90002 3. Chinese horoscopes. 90003 90002 4. The "ancient" Chinese 60-year cycle and its origins. 90003 90002 5. When did the Chinese invent the telescope? 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter5.90012 90003 90002 90011 Chinese comets. 90012 90003 90002 1. Suspiciously high comet observation frequency in China. 90003 90002 2. Years of comet observations in China. 90003 90002 3. European comets and their observation dates. 90003 90002 4. A comparison of the Chinese and European comet rosters. 90003 90002 5. Comet Halley. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter6. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Parallels between the history of Europe and the "ancient" China. 90012 90003 90002 1.A general characteristic of Chinese history. 90003 1.1. The reason why Chinese history is so complex. 90176 1.2. Chinese names of persons and places. 1.2.1. What we come up with when we read Chinese texts and translate Chinese names. 90176 1.2.2. European nations on the Chinese arena. 90002 * 1) The "ancient" Chinese Hungarians. 90176 * 2) Serbs in "ancient" China. 90176 * 3) Goths in "ancient" China. 90176 * 4) The Don Cossacks in "ancient" China.90176 * 5) Tartars and the Turks in "ancient" China. 90176 * 6) Swedes in "ancient" China. 90176 * 7) Macedonians in "ancient" China. 90176 * 8) Czechs in "ancient" China. 90176 * 9) The identity of the "ancient" Chinese Mongols. 90003 90002 2. The landmarks of the parallelism between the Chinese and the phantom European history before the X century A. D. 90003 90002 3. Parallelism Key Points between the Chinese and Roman-Byzantium History of the X-XIVth centuries.90003 90002 4 .. Chinese History of Cidanes, the Kingdom of the Prester John, and the Emergence of the "Mongolian" Empire. 90003 4.1. Copying on Paper of the Prehistory of "Mongolian" Empire to the European and allegedly Eastern "Chinese" History. 90176 4.2. History of the "Mongolian" Empire in the "Chinese" Chronicles. 90176 90002 4.2.1. Roman and Nicean Empires in the "Chinese" Chronicles. 90176 4.2.2. Ilya Dashi. 90176 4.2.3. Gurkhan.90176 4.2.4. "Chinese" Imil and Ancient Russian River Ilmer. 90176 4.2.5. "Chinese" City Of Balasagun And Old Russian City Of Balakhna. 90176 4.2.6. "Chinese" Semirechie-Seven Rivers. 90176 4.2.7. Ilya Dashi Becomes A Chief Of A Huge Army In The Semireche. 90176 4.2.8. About the Name China. Why China Is Called China. 90176 4.2.9. Grandiose "Ancient Chinese" Battle In XIIIth Century AD. 90176 4.2.10. The Christianity Of Kara-Kitai (China).The Czar Skifs? 90176 4.2.11. "Chinese" Chronicles, Talking The Same Time, Were Elongated By A Century. 90176 4.2.12. When Were The European Chronicles Transplanted To China? 90003 90002 5. The History Of China After The XVth Century. 90003 90002 6. "Mongolian" Manjou Golden (Ch'ing) Dynasty in China 90003 90002 7. Our Reconstruction 90003 90002 8. What Happened in the Territory of Contemporary China before the XVIIth Century AD 90003 90002 9. Were Paper, Gunpowder, and Silk Really Invented in China? 90003 90002 0.About the Historical Sources of Modern Mongols 90003 90002 11. Where China is Shown on Old Maps? 90003 90002 12. Conclusion 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter 7. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The Great = "Mongolian" conquest of Japan. 90012 90003 90002 1. The military caste of the Japanese Samurai as the descendants of the XIV-XV century conquerors of Japan originating from the Horde. 90003 90002 2. Mediaeval Japan could have been a Christian country. Traces of Russia, or the Horde, in Japan.90003 90002 3. The manufacture of the famous Samurai swords involved the "Tartar Process" in the Middle Ages. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Part 3. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Scythia and the Great Migration. The colonization of Europe, Africa and Asia by Russia, or the Horde, in the XIV century. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter8. 90012 90003 90002 90011 West Europeans writing about the Great = "Mongolian" Russia. 90012 90003 90002 1. Invasion into Europe, the Mediterranean region and Asia under Ivan Kalita (Batu-Khan).The foundation of the Great = "Mongolian" Empire. 90003 90002 2. The "Mongolian" Empire and the famous Christian kingdom of Presbyter Johannes. Khans of the "Mongols" as Orthodox Christians. 90003 90002 3. Great Tartary and China. 90003 90002 4. Mediaeval Western reports about the Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes, or the Russian Empire (the Horde) in the XIV-XVI century. 90003 90002 5. The Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes, or the Russian and Ataman Horde as the dominant power of the XIV-XVI century.90003 90002 6. A new look on the Kingdom of Presbyter Johannes. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter9. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The Slavic conquest of Europe and Asia. A rare book of Mauro Orbini about the "Slavic Expansion". 90012 90003 90002 1. Did the Western Europe remember the "Mongolian" conquest to have been undertaken by the Slavs? 90003 90002 2. Why did Peter the Great build St. Petersburg amidst the swamps? The book of Mauro Orbini. 90003 90002 3. The conquest of Europe and Asia by the Slav according to Orbini's book.90003 90002 4. Our conception explains the book of Orbini. 90003 90002 5. The parties that went to battle and won, and the ones that lost, but wrote history. 90003 90002 6. Where did Orbini conduct his research? 90003 90002 7. Orbini was aware that historians would not like his work. 90003 90002 8. The list of sources used by Orbini. 90003 90002 9. Orbini's book uses Western European materials. 90003 90002 10. Our point of view on Orbini's book. 90003 90002 11. The use of the Cyrillic alphabet in the Western Europe as reported by Orbini.90003 90002 12. Orbini on the Slavic Goths. 90003 90002 13. Orbini on the Russian Slavs, or the Muscovites. 90003 90002 14. Orbini on the Huns and Attila as a Russian warlord. 90003 90002 15. Hungary in the title of the Russian Czars. 90003 90002 16. Orbini on the campaigns of the Russian Muscovites in the epoch of the "Antiquity". 90003 90002 17. Orbini on the "Finns, or Fennes, a Slavic tribe". 90003 90002 18. Orbini on the "Slavic Dacians". 90003 90002 19. Orbini on the "Norman Slavs".90003 90002 20. Orbini on the Amazons - "the famed Slavic warrior women". 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter10. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The Slavs in European history as per the book of Volanskiy and Klassen. 90012 90003 90002 1. Why the books of Orbini, Chertkov, Volanskiy, Klassen and many others were neither refuted, nor accepted. 90003 90002 2. Evidence of Slavic presence in the Western Europe perceived as perfectly natural from the 90176 viewpoint of our conception.90003 90002 3. F. Volanskiy, Y. I. Klassen and their historical research. 90003 90002 4. Slavic presence in Europe was described in many books dating up until the XVIII century. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter11. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Mediaeval Scandinavian maps and geographical oeuvres report the "Mongolian" conquest of Eurasia and Africa. 90012 90003 90002 1. A general characteristic of geographical tractates. 90003 90002 2. Japheth as the son of the Biblical Noah.The nation that bore this name and its geographical localisation. 90003 90002 3. The Trojan conquest of Europe. 90003 90002 4. Slavic conquest of Europe allegedly of the VI-VII centuries ad as one of the reflections of the Russian "Mongolian" conquest of the XIV-XV centuries. 90003 90002 5. Comparison of the West and the East in the Works of A.S. Khomyakov. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter12. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Western Europe of the XIV-XVI century as part of the Great = "Mongolian" Empire.90012 90003 90002 1. The seemingly strange, yet perfectly understandable attitude of the Romanovs to the Russian sources mentioning the Western Europe. 90003 90002 2. Were the inhabitants of the pre-Romanovian Russia really "afraid of the foreigners", as the Romanovian historians claim? 90003 90002 3. Europe invaded by the Ottoman = Ataman Turks. The reason why they were referred to as "Tartars". 90003 90002 4. The gilded domes of Russia. What was Russia's source of silver, given that it owned no silver mines in that epoch? 90003 90002 5.Futile attempts of the Westerners to drive a wedge between the allied forces of the ancient Russia and the Ottoman = Ataman Turks. 90003 90002 6. How the Western Europe finally succeeded in making Russia and Turkey hostile towards each other. 90003 90002 7. The joy of liberty. 90003 90002 8. Mediaeval Russian accounts of the Western Europe. 90003 90002 9. Moscow as Third Rome. 90003 90002 10. How veracious is our idea of the mediaeval Western inquisition? 90003 90002 11. The identity of St.George. 90176 90003 90002 12. The knightly name of Rosh = Russ in crusade history. 90003 90002 13. Gog, the Mongols and the Tartars as Frankish crusader knights. 90003 90002 14. Direct participation of the Russian troops in the conquest of Constantinople. 90003 90002 15. History of firearms: is our perception correct? 90003 90002 16. Did the Horde conquer Transcaucasia or the Western Europe? 90003 90002 17. The toponymy of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. 90003 90002 18.The reason why the famous icon of Our Lady of Kykkos from Cyprus is still concealed from public sight. 90003 90002 19. "Mongolian" = the Great Empire was split in the XVII century. 90003 90002 20. Pogrom of the Russian Horde history on the example of Kirillo-Belozersky monastery. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Part 4. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Western European archaeology confirms our reconstruction, likewise mediaeval cartography and geography. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter13.90012 90003 90002 90011 Surviving mediaeval geographical world maps do not contradict our reconstruction. 90012 90003 90002 1. Our analysis of the maps collected in the fundamental atlas entitled "The Art of Cartography". 90003 90002 2. Conclusions made on the basis of the mediaeval maps. 90003 90002 3. The evolution of the geographical descriptions and maps of the XI-XVI century. The condition they reached us in. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter 14. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The real contents of Marco Polo's famous book.90012 90003 90002 1. Introduction. The identity of Marco Polo. 90003 90002 2. Who was the real author of Marco Polo's book? 90003 90002 3. In what language did Marco Polo read or dictate his book? 90003 90002 4. Did Marco Polo visit the territory of modern China at all? 90003 90002 5. Geographical names used by Marco Polo were considered his own inventions in Europe for two hundred years. 90003 90002 6. What are the "islands" mentioned by Marco Polo? 90003 90002 7. Why modern commentators have to "correct" certain names used by Marco Polo, allegedly in error.90003 90002 8. What direction should one take in order to reach India and China from Italy? 90003 90002 9. Why Marco Polo mentions spices, silks and oriental wares in general when he tells us about India, or Russia. 90003 90002 10. The toponymy of the name "India". 90003 90002 11. When and how were certain geographical names used by Marco Polo "localised". 90003 90002 12. Miniatures in the book of Marco Polo. 90003 90002 13. The "Kuznetskiy Most" in mediaeval China. 90003 90002 14.The itinerary of Marco Polo. 90003 90002 15. After Marco Polo. 90003 90002 16. Summary. 90003 90002 17. Addendum. Alaskan History. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter15. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The disappearing mystery of the Etruscans. 90012 90003 90002 1. The mighty, legendary and allegedly enigmatic Etruscans. 90003 90002 2. What we know about the Etruscans. 90003 90002 3. The "antiquity dispute" of Florence and Rome. 90003 90002 4. The two theories of the Etruscans 'origins - the Northern and the Eastern.90003 90002 5. How the Etruscans referred to themselves. 90003 90002 6. Possible toponymy of the words "Etruscan" and "Tuscany". 90003 90002 7. The Etruscan Tarquins = Tarkhuns = Turkish Khans. 90003 90002 8. Our explanation of the dispute between Florence and Rome. 90003 90002 9. The famous Etruscan lupine statue of the Capitol and the date of its creation. 90003 90002 10. Etruscans in the Bible. 90003 90002 11. What was the Holy Book of the Etruscans called? What was the Etruscan religion? 90003 90002 12.The appearance of the Etruscan lettering. 90003 90002 13. Slavic archaeology in the Western Europe. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Part 5. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Ancient Egypt as part of the Great "Mongolian" Ataman Empire of the XIV-XVI century. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter16. 90012 90003 90002 90011 History and chronology of the "ancient" Egypt. A general overview. 90012 90003 90002 1. Our hypothesis. 90003 90002 2. A brief account of the mediaeval Egyptian history.90003 90002 3. The erroneous Scaligerian foundation and the objective difficulties inherent in the consensual chronology of Egypt. 90003 90002 4. The "ancient" Egypt of the Pharaohs as a Christian country. 90003 90002 5. The construction tools used by the "ancient" Egyptians. 90003 90002 6. The religious character of many "ancient" Egyptian monuments. 90003 90002 7. What were the names of the Egyptian pharaohs? 90003 90002 8. Why it is presumed that before Champollion the Egyptian hieroglyphs were interpreted erroneously.90003 90002 9. The question of origins: do the Chinese have Egyptian ancestry, or vice versa? 90003 90002 10. The destruction of inscriptions found on the ancient artefacts of Russia and Egypt. 90003 90002 11. Who destroyed the names of people, cities and countries written on the "ancient" Egyptian monuments? When was it done, and for what purpose? 90003 90002 12. The condition of the "ancient" Egyptian relics. 90003 90002 13. The advent of the mighty Mamelukes to Egypt. 90003 90002 13.1. The Mamelukes as the Cherkassian Cossacks. Scaligerian history admits that Egypt was conquered by the Cossacks. 90176 13.2. The Caucasus and the Cossacks. 90176 13.3. The Cherkassian Cossack Sultans in Egypt. 90003 90002 14. Linguistic connexions between Russia and African Egypt in the Middle Ages. 90003 90002 14.1. The alphabet used by the Egyptian Copts. 90176 14.2. Egyptian names in Russia. 90003 90002 15. The confustion between the sounds R and L in Egyptian texts.90003 90002 16. "Ancient" Egyptian texts were often transcribed in consonant letters exclusively. 90003 90002 17. A scheme of our reconstruction of Egyptian history. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter 17. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The Trojan War of the XIII century and Pharaoh Ramses II. "Ancient" Egypt of the XIII-XVI century. 90012 90003 90002 1. The nation of Heta or the Cossack Goths. Russia, or the Horde, in Egyptian texts found upon Egyptian monuments. 90003 90002 2.The Great City (citadel) of Kadesh in the "ancient" Egyptian texts. 90003 90002 2.1. The city of Kadesh in the Land of the Amorrheans. 90176 2.2. Limanon = Rimanon = Roman. 90176 2.3. Kadesh as New Rome on the Bosporus. 90176 2.4. The city of Kadesh blocks the way to the Land of the Goths. 90003 90002 3. The Canaan land of Ruthen. 90003 90002 3.1. Russia, or the Horde of the Khans. 90176 3.2. Another reference to the city of Khaleb = Aleppo = Lipetsk in Russia (or the Russian word "90093 khleb 90094", "bread".90003 90002 4. The land of Nakharain as the Nogai River (or, alternatively, Greece / Byzantium). 90003 90002 5. Kita = Kitai (China), or Scythia. 90003 90002 6. Syria and Assyria (or Ashur in the "ancient" Egyptian inscriptions) as Russia, or the Horde. 90003 90002 7. Great Pharaoh Ramessu II = Ramses II = Roman Jesus. 90003 90002 8. Ramses, or Roman Jesus as the deity of the Ottomans (Atamans). 90003 90002 9. The Trojan War of the XIII century, or the war of 1453 that ended with the conquest of Czar-Grad.90003 90002 10. Three peace pacts famous in Scaligerian history as reflections of one and the same pact signed between Russia and the Ottomans in 1253 or 1453. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter18. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The XIV century "Mongolian" invasion into Egypt as the Hiksos epoch in the "ancient" Egypt. 90012 90003 90002 1. The identity of the "ancient" Hiksos dynasty. 90003 90002 2. Why the names of nearly all the Hiksos = Cossack kings happen to be chiselled off the monuments of the "ancient" Egypt.90003 90002 3. The famous Great Sphinx on the Gizeh Plain was built by the Hiksos (the Mamelukes). 90003 90002 4. Egyptologists are uncertain about the correctness of the "ancient" Egyptian names in their translation. 90003 90002 5. Egyptian kings of the Hiksos epoch. 90003 90002 6. The attitude to the Hiksos dynasty in Egypt. The epoch when the recollections of their reign started to get wiped out and the instigators of this process. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter19.90012 90003 90002 90011 "Ancient" African Egypt as part of the Christian "Mongolian" Empire of the XIV-XVI century - its primary necropolis and chronicle repository. 90012 90003 90002 1. General overview of the 18th "ancient" Egyptian dynasty and its history. 90003 90002 2. The "lunar", or Ottoman dynasty of the Pharaoh, or "the dynasty of the crescent". 90003 90002 3. Amenkhotep I and Amenkhotep IV. 90003 90002 4. Pyramids and sepulchres. 90003 90002 5. The gigantic funereal complexes of the "ancient" Egypt as the main imperial "Mongolian" cemetery of the XIV-XVI century.The identity of Tutankhamen. 90003 90002 6. A hypothesis: certain major constructions of the "antiquity" were made of concrete. 90003 90002 7. The great forgotten invention of mediaeval alchemy: geopolymeric concrete of the Egyptian pyramids, temples and statues. 90003 90002 8. Concrete in the "ancient" Roman Empire. 90003 90002 9. The Mamelukes and the monuments of the "ancient" Egypt. 90003 90002 10. Egyptian pyramids as the Scythian burial mounds. 90003 90002 11. The capital of Egypt was known as Babylonia in the XVI century.Ottoman crescents with a star and the Ottoman "bunchuks" of the Cossacks over the "ancient" Egypt. 90003 90002 12. Napoleon's artists appear to have been afraid of reproducing the enormous Orthodox cross on the throne of the "ancient" Egyptian Colossus of Memnon in their accurate drawings. 90003 90002 13. Napoleon's artists reproduced the Christian motif of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in their drawings of the "ancient" Egyptian Colossi of Memnon. 90003 90002 14. The "ancient" Egyptian Osiris as Jesus Christ.90003 90002 15. The "ancient" Egyptian goddess Isis and her son Horus are most probably Mary the Holy Mother of God and her son Jesus Christ. 90003 90002 16. The two famous boats of the "ancient" Egyptian Pharaoh Cheops (Khufu) were made of wooden boards. Therefore, they are of a very late origin, and their manufacture must have employed iron or steel saws. 90003 90002 17. Slavic ornaments on the "ancient" Egyptian clothing. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter20. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Pharaoh Thutmos III the Conqueror as the Ottoman = Ataman Mehmet II, a conqueror from the XV century.90012 90003 90002 1. The astronomical dating of the reign of Thutmos III by the zodiacs of Dendera concurs with the New Chronology of Egypt. 90003 90002 2. The great conqueror of the XV century Pharaoh, Sultan and Ataman Thutmos III, also known as Mohammed (Mehmet) II. 90003 90002 3. The capture of Kadesh = Czar-Grad by Pharaoh (Ataman) Thutmos in 1453. 90003 90002 4. Relations between Russia, or the Horde, and the Ottoman = Ataman Empire in the XV century: two parts of the Great Empire.90003 90002 5. The Ataman conquest of the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor and Europe in the XV century, according to the "ancient" Egyptian texts. 90003 90002 6. The Egyptian obelisk, the Serpent Column, the Gothic Column, and the knightly statue of Emperor Justinian in Istanbul. The name of Moscow. 90003 90002 7. Some parallels between the biographies of Alexander the Great and Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent. 90003 90002 8. The location of Memphis and Thebes - the capitals of the "ancient" Egypt.90003 90002 9. Conclusion. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Part 6. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Ancient Russia, world history and geography in mediaeval Scandinavian geographical tractates. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter21. The meanings of the familiar modern geographical names in the Middle Ages. The opinion of the Scandinavians. 90012 90003 90002 1. How we compiled the list of geographical identifications. 90003 90002 2. Austria. 90003 90002 3. Asia = Land of the Aesir.The Azov Sea. 90003 90002 4. Armenia. 90003 90002 5. Austrriki. 90003 90002 6. Africa. What did the name stand for in the Middle Ages? Where can we find it on the map, given that "Africa" was inhabited by many European and Asian nations? 90003 90002 7. Blaland = "Black Land" or Babylon. 90003 90002 8. The Great Svitjod (Saint) = Russia = Scythia. 90003 90002 9. Vina. Byzantium. Volga. Eastern Baltic regions. 90003 90002 10. Gardariki = Russia. Geon = Nile. Germany. 90003 90002 11.The City ( "Gorod" in Russian) = Grad = The Gods. Scandinavians and Europeans in general called Russia "Land of the Great God" and "Land of the Giants". 90003 90002 12. Greece = Grikland = Land of St. George. 90003 90002 13. Dnepr. Don. The Danube. Europe. Egypt. The Western Dvina. 90003 90002 14. India. 90003 90002 15. Cairo = Babylon. The Kama. The Caspian Sea. Kiev. Constantinople. Kanugardr = Kiev. Kylfingaland. Lake Ladoga. 90003 90002 16. Miklagard in Thracia and Rome in Scythia (Russia).90003 90002 17. The city of Murom. The Neva. Nepr. Novgorod = Holmgard. River Olkoga and the city of Olonets. 90003 90002 18. Parthia. 90003 90002 19. Perm and Bjarmaland. 90003 90002 20. Polotsk. Paradise. Rostov. 90003 90002 21. Russia. 90003 90002 22. Saxland. Lesser Svitjod. Northern Dvina. 90003 90002 23. Serkland. 90003 90002 24. Syria. 90003 90002 25. Scythia. 90003 90002 26. Smolensk, Suzdal, Tanais, Tanakvisl, Tartarariki etc. Thracia = Turkey. Finland. Chernigov.90003 90002 27. Sweden = Lesser Svitjod. 90003 90002 28. The ancient meaning of the word "Scandinavia". 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Chapter22. 90012 90003 90002 90011 Corollaries. What the Scandinavian geographical tractates and maps report about the ancient Russia. 90012 90003 90002 1. How different nations referred to Russia, or the Horde. 90003 90002 2. Rivers known as "Don" in the Middle Ages. 90003 90002 3. Sons of the Biblical Japheth. 90003 90002 4. The "Norman Theory" as perceived after a study of the Scandinavian maps.90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Addendum 1. 90012 90003 90002 90011 What happened to the treasury of the Great = "Mongolian" Empire after the great divide of the XVII century. 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 ADDENDUM 2. 90012 90003 90002 90011 The Biblical Book of Revelation refers to the Ottoman = Ataman Conquest of the XV-XVI century. 90012 90003 90002 1. A brief rendition of the Apocalypse. 90003 90002 2. The warlord Joshua son of Nun as the "second coming" of Jesus Christ in the XV-XVI century.90003 90002 3. The Great Apocalyptic Judgement as the invasion of the Ottomans = Atamans to the Western Europe in the XV-XVI century. 90003 90002 4. The Apocalyptic division of nations into "pure" and "impure", the righteous and the sinners and so on as a reflection of the "quarantine massacre" of epidemic areas of Europe and the Mediterranean region by the Ottomans = Atamans. 90003 90002 5. Obvious traces of editing or even radical rewriting inherent in the Book of Revelation. 90003 90002 6.A possible reference to Noah = Columbus and his voyage towards the New World in тисячі чотиреста дев'яносто дві made by the author of the Revelation. 90003 90002 7. Expectations of Doomsday in 1492 coincided with the departure of Noah's (Columbus's) fleet and the epoch of the Biblical Apocalypse. 90003 90002 8. The canonization of the Book of Revelation as a memento of the Ottoman = Ataman conquest for future generations. 90003 90002 9. MOSCOW EVENTS OF THE XVI CENTURY ON THE PAGES OF APOCALYPSE. 90003 90002 10."ANTIQUE" ROMAN EMPIRE IS GREAT = "MONGOLIAN" EMPIRE OF THE XIV-XVth CENTURIES. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Addendum 3. 90012 90011 90012 90176 90011 Modern condition of the Egyptian zodiacs from Dendera and Esna. 90012 90003 90002 1.The zodiacs of Esna. 90003 90002 2. The Zodiacs of Dendera. 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Annex 1. 90012 90003 90002 90011 A complete list of sources used by Mauro Orbini (according to the Italian edition of 1606). 90012 90003 90002 90003 90002 90011 Annex 2.90012 90003 90002 90011 Fragment of Mauro Orbini's book entitled "Origine de gli Slavi & Progresso dell'Imperio Loro" 90012 90003 90002 ----------------------------- 90003 90002 90011 LITERATURE 90012 90003 90002 90011 CHRON5 - ILLUSTRATIONS 90012 90003 90002 90011 Auxiliary illustrations 90012 90003 .90000 A Brief History Of Russia 90001 90002 By Serguei Shcheglov on April 25 2017 in Society 90003 90004 The famous Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.90005 90006 6.Prehistoric Russia 90007 90002 The first mentioning of some community in the territory of what we now refer to as Russia came to be in the Fourth Century AD with the formation of the first tribal union of Eastern Slavs (Volhynians and Buzhans). The following century marked yet another tribal union of Eastern Slavs, the Polyants, in the middle basin of the Dnieper River. This period claims the first written evidence about the "Rus" and "Rusah".In 558 the Avars battled and won over the Slavic tribe of Dulebs, marking the subsequent series of victories and defeats, as well as a broadening of these Slavs 'nation over a long phase lasting around three hundred years. 90003 90006 5.Early Russian Civilization 90007 90002 At the beginning of the Eighth Century the resettlement of Slavonic tribes began in the upper basins of the Dnieper, Western Dvina, and Upper Volga Rivers. Towards the end of the century the ancient state of the Slavs faced with the north expansion of the Khazar Khanate and the imposition of tribute on the Slavic tribes of Polyants, Severian, Vyatichi, and Radimichi. Unlike the countries conquered by the Mongols in Central Asia, the Caspian and the Northern Black Sea coast, which had favorable natural conditions for extensive nomadic herding and became the territory of the Mongolian state, Russia had generally maintained its own independent statehood throughout the period.The dependence of Russia from the khans of the Golden Horde was expressed in the heavy tribute which the Russian people were forced to give the invaders. 90003 90006 4.Kievan Rus, Mongols, and Tatars 90007 90002 The culture of the Slavic tribes on the eve of the ancient Russian state was marked with the creation of the Slavic alphabet by Cyril and Methodius in the middle of the 9th Century. The Russian language has become a source of cultural history, being at that time very similar to other Slavic languages. The end of the century set the stage for the reign of Prince Oleg, famous for the unification of the Novgorod and Kiev regencies, and later the transfer of the capital from Novgorod to Kiev.The newly born kingdom conquered the tribes of Krivichi, Drevlyane, the Severians, and Radimichi and formed the Kievan Rus. In the early Thirteenth Century the large Mongol state formed in Central Asia. The territory occupied by Mongolian tribes, stretched from lake Baikal, the upper reaches of Yenisei River and Irtysh River in the north down to the southern regions of the Gobi Desert. On behalf of one of their principal tribes, the Mongols also wore the name of Tatars. Until the early thirties of the Thirteenth Century, the Mongol-Tatars engaged in wars in China and Central Asia, strategically explored the future theater of military invasions, and collected information on the political situation and economic and military capabilities of European countries.90003 90002 The reason behind the rapid and victorious advance of Genghis Khan's troops was the fragmentation of Russia by the principalities, competing with each other. Since the second half of the 14th Century, the unification process begins, having a major driving force of steady defeat of main political rivals by Moscow principality in the Sixties and Seventies of that century.The formation of Russian land has began around Moscow, the city which played a role of political supremacy in region. Moscow took over the organization of a nationwide struggle to overthrow the yoke of the Golden Horde. The final stage of the unification process took about 50 years during the reign of Ivan III (1462-1505), and first years of the reign of his successor Vasily III (1505-1533). The following hundred years witnessed a struggle with the Scandinavian kingdoms in the Northern and Northwestern borders and accession by Russia lands in the lower reaches of the Volga River, the Northern Caucasus, and Siberia.90003 90006 3.The Rise of Moscow and the Russian Empire 90007 90002 The concept of the Russian Empire originated with Peter the Great, and it began with grandiose reforms that country has never seen before. All transformations of Peter The Great, regardless of the time they were conducted, historians usually divided into few types: reform of government and administration, an industrial transformation, trade and finance, the military reform and changes in foreign policy of the state, reforms in the education and culture, and church reforms.Peter's urge for modernization in the economy was due to the dire conditions of the country after devastating Northern war. It was necessary to establish production of all industrial levels to meet the needs of the army. In the end the Northern war, Russia took a firm position of the great European powers. Architecture, literature and state of culture in general passed a transitional period, somehow reflecting the Western European influence. It is noticeable in the late 17th and early 18th Centuries the formation of the "Moscow Baroque" style, as well as the development of Church architecture.The Europe has heard the the name of Russian Ballet, yet the state capital was moved from Moscow's baroque mansions to the grandeur of the more Westernized Saint Petersburg's classicism. 90003 90006 2.The USSR 90007 90002 After the socialist revolution of 1917 in Russia, Moscow became the capital once again, and the state system of the large Russian country had changed completely. The followers of the communist ideas of Karl Marx and the ideology of the Russian revolution leader Vladimir Lenin took over. Until 1922 there was a civil war and the formation of the state, which entered the history as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union.The Soviet Union existed for 70 years and was the body of 15 Soviet republics to the West, Southwest, and Southeast of what was once the Russian Empire. During its existence the Soviet country has significantly raised the educational level of society, through the access to free education system, which was compulsory for all layers of population. 90003 90002 The country has passed the stage of industrialization, developing light and heavy industry, metallurgy and high-tech industries, including space shipbuilding resulted in manned space expeditions.Despite the outer achievements the country have had ideological issues dimmed as time passed by. High dependence on the import of carbohydrates and decline in productivity led to the decline in the economy in the mid-1980s of the last century. The socialist system was in dire need of reform because of accumulated problems in the national economy, foreign policy, cold war and human rights abuses associated with ideological intolerance of ruling elite. With Mikhail Gorbachev coming to power in 1985, the country's development vector has changed even more dramatically than in the times of Peter the Great.The changes affected the foreign policy and the openness of society to the rest of the world, processes of 90029 Perestroika 90030 have altered the institutions of government, and 90029 Glasnost 90030 (openness) pushed the boundaries of freedom of expression and freedom of conscience. 90003 90006 1.Post-Soviet Russia 90007 90002 After the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1992 року, a phase of self-formation occurred in republics of the former Soviet Union and the largest one, the Russian Federation, which was the basis of both the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union, have embarked upon the construction of a market economy. Russia is currently engaged in a number of military endeavors in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, many of which are controversial and seen Russian actions frowned upon by many members of the United Nations (UN) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).90003 .